A.hin layer of connective tissue underlies and supports the alveolar cells. The diaphragm is a thin, dome-shaped skeletal muscle that forms the floor of the ta rib cage between the lungs and abdomen. Viral infections. current health problemsAn infection of the lungs’ large airways bronchi, usually caused by a virus. Lung volumes are measured link clinically by a device known as a spirometer. When the body requires greater volumes of air entering the lungs, such as during exercise, the bronchioles dilate to permit greater airflow. The use of filters removes larger particles from tobacco smoke, thus reducing deposition in larger airways. Your lungs are protected by your rib cage, which is made up of 12 sets of ribs. Pulmonary emboli Thanking You may be investigated using a ventilation/perfusion scan, a C scan of the arteries of the lung, or blood tests such as the D-dimer . 31 Pulmonary hypertension describes an increased pressure at the beginning of the pulmonary artery that has many differing causes. 31 Other rarer conditions may also affect the blood supply of the lung, such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis, which causes inflammation of the small blood vessels of the lungs and kidneys. 31 A lung contusion is a bruise caused by chest trauma. In response to dust or other environmental pollutants, the bronchioles can constrict to prevent the pollution of the lungs. You will feel your chest getting slightly bigger.